We are thrilled to release our first podcast recorded from a podcast party!
We recorded with GNO, a group of dynamic moms with young school aged children (pictured above). GNO stands for Girls Night Out. That evening, Two Peds in a Pod was “the night out.” The recording you hear below is a distillation (with a few later additions) of the conversation we had on three topics: tantrums, anxiety and tics. We found the discussion reflected the concerns of parents of kindergarteners and first and second graders whom we see in the office.
In photo: Dr. Kardos on left and Dr. Lai on right.
Live in the greater Philadelphia area? Give a Two Peds in a Pod podcast party as a gift or host one yourself. Email us at firstname.lastname@example.org
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Happy New Year
Naline Lai, MD and Julie Kardos, MD
© 2009 Two Peds in a Pod
Mothers and fathers of twins know that parenting twins is not “twice the work” of singletons. Parenting twins is “EXPONENTIALLY the work” of parenting singletons. Think “singleton, squared.” I know. Not only do I care for twins (and triplets!) in the office, but also I have a set at home.
Discipline is tough. Twins squabble just like other siblings. The difficulty lies in that twins are at the exact same developmental stage as each other. In contrast, when you have a two-year-old and a four-year-old child, for example, you expect the two-year-old to not understand sharing or turn taking and you expect the four-year-old to understand both. Then, you can patiently explain to a four-year-old, “Well, if your younger sister has the doll, and you want it, you can make her very interested in another toy. Then, trade her the toy for the doll.”
When you have two-year-olds fighting over the same toy, you have few options. You can force turn taking, which always involves crying (for the one who is waiting for her turn). You can put the toy in time out which causes both twins to cry. Or you can put both twins in time out which, to help you visualize, can be like putting two angry Houdini octopi into a net together.
Turn taking can be taught using the “count to ten” method. Take this scenario: both twins “need” the same red car at the exact same time. You know that the only reason twin B wants the car is because twin A has the car (this is the same logic as for any sibling: “I covet what you have because you have it.”) You give the car to twin A and stay with twin B, hold his hand, and say, “When we get to ten, your brother will give the car to you.” Then you slowly count out loud to ten. If twin A does not give up the car, then gently take the car from him and say, “Now your brother gets the car until we get to ten.” Stay with twin A while twin B plays with the car and you count out loud to ten. Keep switching off until one brother says “I don’t want it” or simply gives the car away by the time you get to 3 or 4 in your count.
Using the “count to ten” method teaches several lessons: 1) how to count to ten, 2) how to wait your turn, and 3) that fairness matters in your home. You also convey to your child that you will not abandon a crying, frustrated two-year-old. The textbooks say that two-year-olds are young to learn to share. However, twins must learn how to share. And you know what? This method works.
When my twins started preschool at two-and-one-half years old, I warned their teacher that if she saw either of my twins standing next to a classmate and counting to ten slowly, loudly, and deliberately, that my child would expect that child to hand over whatever toy she had when my child got to ten! I had to prep my twins that home rules may differ from classroom rules.
What about time out? Time out doesn’t work as well with toddler twins. If one twin is in time out, the other twin will sabotage the time out by making a raucous. One time, I put one of my twins in time out for biting the other one. Because the biter was crying, the victim startled me when he also started crying and yelling “Let him out of Time Out, Mommy!” One way around this is to put the toy that precipitated the squabble in time out instead of the child (one minute per year of the twin’s age).
Even at the end of the day, discipline for twins differs. For twins who share a bedroom, every night is a slumber party. When my twins became old enough to talk to each other before falling asleep, I moved their bedtime earlier to allow them extra time to talk. I found their conversations too cute to interrupt and didn’t have the heart to enforce sleep time. Plus I like to think that it made up for any bickering (ok, fighting and tears) that occurred during that day and allowed for extra bonding time. Like so many other aspects of parenting, sometimes you just have to go with the flow.
Julie Kardos, MD with Naline Lai, MD
© 2009 Two Peds in a Pod
With special thanks to my psychology-major lawyer-friend Karen for passing on the “count to ten” stroke of genius method of teaching “twin sharing.”
The American Academy of Pediatrics has increased the recommended daily requirement for Vitamin D in children and adolescents to 400 IU (international units), based on studies of decreasing bone density in kids. This is equivalent to 32 ounces of milk per day. This is TOO MUCH milk for anyone other than an older formula-fed baby who has not yet started solids foods. All breastfed babies, babies on formula AND solid foods, and all other children and teens should be given a vitamin D supplement such as Tri-Vi-Sol or a chewable children’s vitamin. Read the labels: look for “Vitamin D—400 IU.” The goal is to prevent rickets (a bone disease that results in brittle bones) and to make sure growing bones reach their maximum potential for strength. Vitamin D is also important for other body systems such as the immune system.
Interestingly, 15 to 30 minutes of direct sunlight per week is all kids need to absorb enough vitamin D through skin. However, concern for increased risk of skin cancer from cumulative sun exposure means that kids are absorbing less vitamin D from sunlight because we parents are so good at applying sunscreen. Also, especially in winter months, children spend more time playing inside than playing outside.
Calcium requirements vary somewhat by age but generally can be met with 16 to 24 ounces (2-3 cups) of milk, or less if kids consume other calcium containing foods such as cheese, yogurt, broccoli, sweet potatoes, fortified cereals, or a supplement. The milligram (mg) requirements are around 500mg for toddlers, 800mg for children and 1200-1500mg for kids 11-18 years. To give you an idea of how to visualize this amount, one cup of milk contains 300mg of calcium. When you read food labels that report calcium as a percent of daily requirement, know that the “standard” for food labels is set as 1000mg. So if a yogurt container reports “25% of daily calcium requirement” you assume that the yogurt contains 250mg of calcium (25% of 1000mg).
So continue to have your kids Drink Milk! But remember to give them a Vitamin D supplement as well.
For more interesting tidbits about milk, please refer to our blog post: “Got Milk? Dispelling Myths About Milk”
Julie Kardos, MD
©2009 Two Peds in a Pod
For families with young children, holiday time can be magical yet stressful. Often families travel great distances to be together and parties tend to run late. Fancy food and fancy dress are common. And winter holidays, well, they occur in the winter, usually during flu season, stomach virus season, and in general multi-illness season. Here are some suggestions about how to keep your kids healthy and happy during this time.
We preface by referring you to suggestions # 1, 2, and 3 of Part 1of A Happy, Healthy Holiday. HANDWASHING, HANDWASHING, AND HANDWASHING will prevent spread of germs. In addition:
1. Traveling 400 miles away from home to spend the week with close family and/or friends is not the time to solve your child’s chronic problems. Let’s say you have a child who is a poor sleeper and tries to climb into your bed every night at home and you have chronic fatigue from arguing with her/walking her back to bed. Knowing that even the best of sleepers will often have difficulty with sleeping in a new environment, just take your “bad sleeper” into your bed at bedtime and avoid your usual exhausing home routine of waking up every hour to walk her back into her room. That way everyone gets better sleep. Similarly, if you have a very picky eater, pack up her favorite portable meals and have them available during the fancy dinners. (But when you return home, please refer to our podcast and blog posts on helping your child to establish good sleep habits and on feeding picky eaters.) Good sleep and good nutrition keep children and their parents healthy and happy.
2. Think of giving your children a wholesome, healthy meal at home before a holiday party which you know will be filled with junk food and food that may seem “foreign” to your children. Hunger fuels tantrums, so eliminate that meltdown source by taking them to the party with full bellies. Also you won’t feel guilty letting them have some of the sweets because they already ate a healthy meal.
3. Speaking of sweets, ginger-bread house vomit is DISGUSTING. Dr. Kardos found this out first-hand with one of her children after a holiday party where the hostess served the kids a beautiful (and generous sized) ginger bread house for dessert. While Dr. Kardos was engrossed in conversation with a long lost friend, one of her boys over-ate. Make sure you supervise what your child is eating at parties.
4. If you have a young baby, be careful not to put yourself in a situation where you lose control of your ability to protect the baby from germs. Well-meaning family members love passing infants from person to person, smothering them with kisses along the way. Unfortunately, kisses can spread cold and flu germs, as well as stomach virus germs.
5. On the flip side, there are some family events, such as having your 95-year-old grandfather meet your baby for the first time, that are once in a lifetime. While you should be cautious on behalf of your child, you can balance caution while looking at the whole context of a situation before deciding whether or not to attend a gathering.
6. Once you have children, their needs come before yours. (Of course there is a healthy balance-but that is a talk for another day.) Although you have anticipated a holiday reunion, your child may be too young to remember it. An ill, overtired child makes everyone miserable. If your child has a cold, is tired, won’t use the unfamiliar bathroom, has eaten too many cookies and has a belly ache, and is in general crying, clingy, and miserable, just leave the party. You can console yourself that when your child is older his actions at that gathering may be the stuff of legends, or at least will make for a funny story.
7. For the allergic families- think twice before you drag in a live Christmas tree into your house. The trees are often covered in dust and mud. Washing the tree off with a hose in the driveway will keep the sneezing down to a minimum. Every year Dr. Lai tells families about rinsing off the tree in the driveway. Most parents dismiss the idea as too time consuming. However, she is pleased to report that a family recently told her they did rinse the tree and it did help keep the allergens at bay.
8. No one else baby proofs. Remember this when you are on the road. We worry less in our own homes. But with their medication pills lying on the end tables and their menorah candles within a toddler’s reach, other people’s homes should make us more cautious. One year at holiday time Dr. Lai’s family was in a hotel room and her six year old came running up saying “look what I found”…It was a pill of Viagra.
We wish you all the best this holiday season.
Julie Kardos, MD and Naline Lai, MD
©2009 Two Peds in a Pod
The other day when Dr. Lai asked a dad in her office how his college freshman son was doing, the dad replied that he was in a state of shock. The reason? His son recently confessed that he drank alcohol and smoked pot at college.
What would you do if your child told you he or she was drinking or using other drugs? Standing with one’s mouth gaping open is probably not the best response. When your child returns home after her first semester away, take the opportunity to discuss alcohol and drugs. Today, licensed psychologist John Gannon who has over 25 years experience as a marriage and family therapist in the Philadelphia area, blogs about what a parent can say. A father of a young adult and a teen, John Gannon has spoken both locally, and nationally on family matters. He has addressed numerous teacher and parent groups, given advice on a radio call in program and has appeared on The Montel Williams Show.
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Okay, it happened. Your child went off to college and now he tells you his college experience is just as bad as yours was. Yes, he is doing well academically. But he is smoking pot and drinking alcohol- it is just about enough to push you over the edge. OMG!
I won’t tell you to relax about this, but remember for the most part, this is a transitional time and not necessarily a life changing scenario. After all, people have gone off to college for 100’s of years and survived. The likelihood that your child will be the exception is not overly high. If this scenario occurs and you comment about drug and alcohol use, you will act responsibly for your child and not necessarily condone the behavior. Most likely, the actions are unlikely to be life changing and isolated to college.
So what is fair to talk about and what is probably too much to talk about? First, if there is any family history for either drug or alcohol abuse this should be discussed. The family secret needs to be revealed so that your child has a chance to minimize the impact of biology/genetics. Painful as it may be, your child deserves the chance to understand why his situation is somewhat unique and that he is at greater risk for drug and alcohol abuse issues than other students.
Secondly, if there is any family history of depression, anxiety, mood disorder, or other significant mental health issues this also needs to be revealed. These disorders run in families. The presence of these disorders increases the likelihood a person self medicates with drugs or alcohol in order to combat mental illness.
Next, isolated events do occur. We always hear about them from our friends. We are grateful that the events do not happen to us. Although these events do appear random, your child has the potential to experience one of them. For instance, episodic binge drinking can be epidemic at some colleges. Chances are your child will participate at some point or another.
Did you ever have that talk about alcohol and drugs that you promised yourself you would have with your child before he went to school? Did you explain about mixing substances? Did you explain about how the body metabolizes alcohol? Did you talk about how alcohol and marijuana lower impulsivity and reduce judgment? Did you tell him how proud of him you are and yet you also feel scared? Did you set the stage to have a dialogue versus a lecture from parent to child?
So go on! Have the talk even if your child already started college. Sure you might be met with some eye rolling. Don’t forget, you rolled your eyes at your parents. What goes around comes around. Listen, if your child hears one thing from you that he remembers, that’s a win! With luck, your child’s events are not the ones others are talking about.
Psychologist, Marriage and Family Therapist
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For more information Partnership for a Drug-Free America www.drugfreeamerica.org
National YouthAnti-Drug Media Campaign www.TheAntiDrug.com
If you are concerned your child is addicted : to find treatment- U.S .Department of Health and Human Services- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration – Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator www.findtreatment.samhsa.gov 1-800-788-2800
Naline Lai, MD and Julie Kardos, MD
©2009 Two Peds in a Pod
Acetaminophen, brand name Tylenol, has been in the news recently, and parents are asking me if it is safe.
This medication, used as a pain reliever and as a fever reducer, is safe to give to babies older than two months, but you must be very careful about the dose that you give. Medicine doses are based on the weight, not the age, of a child. So when checking the label on the bottle that tells how much acetaminophen to give, look at the weight recommendations if there is a discrepancy between your child’s weight and age. If you are not sure, then ask your child’s health care provider. I cannot stress proper dosing enough because of how dangerous an overdose can be.
Here are some facts you need to know in order to avoid over-dosing your child with Tylenol:
1) Always measure the medicine in the dropper or cup provided by the manufacturer of that particular medicine bottle.
2) Be aware that Tylenol infant drops are more concentrated than the children’s suspension liquid. This means that if you were to pour out equal amounts of infant drops and children’s suspension, the amount of drug is actually HIGHER in the measurement of infant drops than in the same measurement of children’s suspension. For example, one full infant dropper of Infant Tylenol Drops, measured to the 0.8ml line of the dropper, is 80mg of Tylenol. The same 0.8ml of Children’s Tylenol Suspension Liquid is only 25mg.
Another way to look at this medicine math: if you intended to give 80mg = 2.5ml = 1/2 teaspoon of Children’s Tylenol Suspension Liquid but you actually gave your child 2.5ml = ½ teaspoon of Infant Tylenol instead of Children’s Tylenol, you would be giving them over 240 mg of Tylenol, which is THREE TIMES the amount that you wanted to give. Again, use the dropper provided to give Infant Tylenol drops and use the cup provided when dosing the Children’s Tylenol Suspension Liquid.
3) Note that other medications have acetaminophen (Tylenol) in them. I advise my patients’ parents to avoid combination cold and flu medicines for two reasons. First, there is little evidence that shows that they actually provide symptom relief. Second, from a safety perspective, parents can accidentally overdose their child with acetaminophen because many contain acetaminophen in them. For example, as of this writing, the following medications all contain acetaminophen as stated in the ingredient list:
Benadryl Allergy and Cold Tablets, Sudafed PE nighttime Cold Maximum Strength Tablets, Theraflu Nighttime Severe Cold and Cough Powder, Tylenol Plus Children’s Cold and Allergy Suspension, Tylenol Sore throat Nighttime liquid, Tylenol Chest Congestion Liquid, and Nyquil.
4) Be aware that “APAP” in the ingredient list means acetaminophen.
Tylenol overdoses can be fatal by causing liver failure. If your child has a chronic liver disease, it is likely that she should avoid Tylenol altogether.
Because of the risk of overdose, I also avoid advising my patients to “alternate Tylenol (acetaminophen) with Motrin (ibuprofen).” I discourage this practice because I am afraid of parents forgetting which medicine they gave last and possibly over-dosing by mistake. Tylenol is meant to be dosed every 4 to 6 hours unless otherwise specified on the label or by your child’s health care provider.
If you ever have questions about possible overdose, call the national US Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.
Julie Kardos, MD
©2009 Two Peds in a Pod
Addendum 10/11/2011: The manufacturers of Tylenol (acetaminophen) responded to the hazard of parents and caregivers accidentally giving the wrong dose of infant drops ( see point #2 above) and stopped making the “concentrated infant drops.” Instead, they now manufacture the “infant drops” and “children’s liquid” using the same concentration as each other. Continue to use the measuring dropper or cup provided with the medication for proper measuring.
“Three things we know for certain: a child is a gift, being a good parent is a blessing, and being a pediatrician is a privilege.” –author unknown
This Thanksgiving, we want to thank you, our readers, for allowing us to help you help your children. We are grateful to you for telling other families about Two Peds In A Pod because when you get right down to it, our information is only good if it reaches people. Thank you for your comments and questions. Keep them coming!
From both of our families, we wish you all a Happy Thanksgiving.
Julie Kardos, MD and Naline Lai, MD
©2009 Two Peds in a Pod
Emma’s dad and I both peered at the filamentous growth dangling from his nine year old’s right nostril. “Yes,” I said, “it’s definitely a wart.”
Emma’s dad replied, “When I was a kid, I heard the way to get rid of a wart was to cut a potato in half, rub it on the wart, and bury it in the backyard.Legend had it, by the time the potato disintegrates, the wart will begone.”
“I wish it were so easy,” I replied.
Warts are caused by skin-dwelling viruses. On the feet, warts can sometimes be mistaken for calluses. One distinguishing feature is that warts sit in the skin like this:
Fine “feeder” blood vessels extend from the wart into the skin. Therefore, if you scrape off the top layer of a wart, a dotted pattern usually appears from above. The dots will not appear in a callus. View from above:
There are simply no glamorous ways to get rid of warts. Most treatment modalities destroy warts by pulverizing the home they live in, a.k.a. your skin. Your doctor maybe armed with various agents such as liquid nitrogen, or dimethyl ether propane,which produces a chemical “freeze” and dries up the wart. Another agent called cantharidin (otherwise known as “beetle juice”) is a caustic liquid derived from the blister beetle (pictured here.)
Application of beetle juice causes the warts to blister. Some doctors will even manually take a scalpel and cut out the warts. Like I said, there are no glamorous treatments. However, more gentle creams which stimulate the immune system, such as Imiquimod (Aldara) are showing promise.
Over the counter remedies exist in a milder form. Commonly used wart removers such as Compound W, Dr Scholl’s Clear Away Wart and Duofilm all contain salicylic acid. The acid slowly dries up the warts. When applying salicylic acid, after a few applications make sure you peel the dead crusty top layer off the wart. Without peeling, future medicine will not reach the wart. These methods can take weeks to months to work, but they do work.
And don’t forget the duct tape. Duct tape, the great all-purpose household item, has also been shown to speed up the resolution of warts.Scientists hypothesize the constant presence of the adhesive somehow stimulates a natural immune response. If you try duct tape, have your child wear the duct tape over the wart for several days in a row and then give a day off. Effects should be seen within a couple of months if not sooner.
The prevention of warts is tricky. Some people just seem genetically predisposed. However, your best bet for keeping warts away is to keep your child’s skin as healthy as possible. Warts tend to gravitate towards areas of skin broken down by friction such as feet or fingers. Liberally apply moisturizing creams daily to prone areas. After a summer of wearing flip-flops and walking on the rough cement by the side of a swimming pool in bare feet, many children end up with warts on the bottom of their feet. I know a teen whose warts on the tips of her fingers stemmed from months of guitar strumming.
Turns out that even without treatment, 60% percent or more of all warts will disappear spontaneously within two years.
Coincidentally, I think that’s also the time it takes for a potato half to disintegrate.
Naline Lai , MD
© 2009 TwoPeds in a Pod
Addendum, January 14, 2010
A thrilling moment in the office is when a mom of a patient shares with me that she is pregnant again. I say, “Wonderful!” What better gift to give your firstborn than a sibling! And I love being a part of good news! As an older sister myself, as a mother of three children, and as a pediatrician, I know the net result of adding another child to the family is positively fabulous.
Although the news is good, sometimes parents are anxious about how to prepare their firstborns for the birth of their younger sibling. Here is what I usually suggest:
For most kids under the age of three to four years, time literally has no meaning. At best, everything in the past occurred yesterday, and everything in the future will occur tomorrow. So in general, there is no magic moment to announce a forthcoming new baby. A few weeks ahead of time, simply start talking about “when a baby comes to live with us.” Don’t expect your child to really believe you until you walk into the house with the baby. And don’t be surprised if your firstborn asks, “When is it leaving?” Kids this age do not understand the idea of “forever” or “permanent.”
Parents often feel guilty about bringing a second baby into the home. They worry they will not have as much time for their firstborn. Well, here’s one secret. Newborns aren’t all that demanding. Unlike with your first born, you will never have the time or urge to stare endlessly at your second born while she sleeps. But, the second time around you will realize that feeding, changing, and washing a newborn take up relatively little time. Your firstborn will likely continue to be the center of attention. She is, after all, much more interesting now that she can pretend and play simple games. Believe me when I tell you that you CAN play Candyland and breastfeed an infant at the same time. You CAN burp an infant while reading aloud to a toddler. You CAN change a diaper WHILE pretending you and your toddler are wild jungle animals. You CAN make a bottle while telling a terrifically exciting story to your toddler.
A word about visitors and gifts: the best part of a gift, to a toddler, is opening it, NOT what’s in it. So don’t worry about trying to make sure your older child gets a gift for every gift the new baby gets. Just allow your toddler to open all the baby’s gifts (if she wants to) because “babies don’t know how to open presents, but big kids do!” Also, newborns don’t care who holds them so visitors are a perfect chance to hand off the baby and get on the floor and play with your toddler. To a toddler, parents are the most important and interesting people in the world. Even if ten people walk in to visit the baby, your toddler will not be jealous if YOU are the one playing with her.
By three years old, kids understand taking turns. In addition to the above tips, if your eldest asks why you need to hold/feed/care for the baby “so much,” just explain that it’s the baby’s turn. Then reinforce how glad you are that your eldest is able to talk, feed herself, play with toys, and maybe use the potty. Remind her that her ability to be independent make her more similar to Mommy and Daddy than to a baby.
Finally, realize whether your firstborn embraces her younger sibling with open arms or pretends that the new baby does not exist, you will have plenty of love to go around . Your heart is big enough for everyone. Dr. Lai tucks each of her three children in at night with the words, “I love you more than anyone in the universe.”
Truth be told, no one will make your younger child laugh as loud and long as her older sibling. Also, older babies are much more interesting than newborns. Even “luke warm” older siblings will warm up as time progresses and the baby becomes more interactive.
In the meantime, tell lots of “when you were a baby” stories to your older child. Toddlers are egocentric (they all think the world revolves around them) and they will LOVE being the main character in your stories. Bring out baby pictures and videos of your firstborn to share. Be sure to point out how far she has come and all the great things she can do now as a big kid.
I end with a personal story:
When I was pregnant with twins, many of our friends commented to us about our firstborn son, “Boy, you are really going to rock his world.”
HIS world, I would think to myself. How about OUR world?
In order to prepare him for his transition from “only child”to “big brother” we emphasized to our son (who was three at the time) that most older brothers get only ONE baby. Our son would be getting TWO babies! He was excited about having two instead of one. For years afterwards, whenever he heard about a pregnant aunt, friend, or neighbor, his first question was always, “Oh, how many babies is she having?”
Out of the mouths of babes….
Julie Kardos, MD
©2009 Two Peds in a Pod
The moment is here, your web cam is on and you beam your toddler’s first steps to hundreds of relatives. But what comes after this highly anticipated moment? Your toddler’s walking gait looks more like Frankenstein’s than that of an Olympic athlete. Deborah Stack, who holds Masters and Doctoral Degrees in Physical Therapy from Thomas Jefferson University, joins us today to tell us what to expect next from your little Frankenstein.
Naline Lai, MD and Julie Kardos, MD
I remember looking at my 16-month-old son and telling him, “You need to learn to walk before your new brother or sister is born.” I did not relish the idea of simultaneously carrying two children. But even after my second was born, I still did a lot of carrying. We all focus on our children’s first steps, but mature walking does not occur immediately.
Toddlerhood officially begins when a child takes his first steps, around 12-15 months, and ends with a mature walking pattern around age three years. But what happens in between? Look for your child to begin taking steps with his feet closer together. His hands progress from being held out to the side near the shoulders to a relaxed position lowered at his sides as he moves. Children will also begin to be able to walk on a wider variety of surfaces such carpet, grass, sand and inclines. They will learn to walk sideways and backwards as well as maneuver around and over toys in their path. Initially your child will probably walk on his toes or with his whole foot hitting the ground at the same time and his feet as wide apart as his shoulders or even more. By age three, most children will walk with their feet just a few inches apart and a “heel-toe” gait, meaning their heel will hit first and then they will shift their weight forward to the big toe before lifting it for the next step. Skills such as running and jumping occur at varying times during toddlerhood.
Taking a walk is a great way to help your child develop his gait. But don’t restrict him to staying on the path! Try walking on grass, playground surfaces, sand boxes, and snow. Once your child can walk on level surfaces, try walking up and down hills and then across them. Decrease your support as he gains confidence. At the playground, climbing is a great way for toddlers to strengthen their muscles, as well as to develop balance and spatial awareness.
This holiday season, save the shipping boxes. Stepping in and out of low boxes is a great way to practice balance and will provide hours of fun during the upcoming holiday festivities.
These tips will help you enjoy your child’s “next steps” as much as his first ones.
Deborah Stack, PT, DPT, PCS
© 2009 Two Peds in a Pod