IMG_8913As we said to Robin Young on NPR’s Here and Now, “a lot of life’s issues all boil down to the essentials of life…eat, sleep, drink, pee, poop and love.” Continuing our ideas and updates on all of those baby essentials, here’s the scoop on poop :

Okay, admit it.

Before you became a parent, you never really gave much thought to poop.

Now you are captivated and can even discuss it over meal time: your child’s poop with its changing colors and consistency. Your vocabulary for poop has likely also changed as you are now parents. Before your baby’s birth, you probably used some grown-up word like “bowel movement” or “stool” or perhaps some “R” rated term not appropriate to this pediatric site. But now, all that has changed.

As pediatricians, we have many conversations with new parents, and some not-so-new parents, about poop. Mostly this topic is of real interest to parents with newborns, but poop issues come out at other milestones in a child’s life, namely starting solid foods and potty training. So we present to you the scoop on poop.

Poop comes in three basic colors that are all equal signs of normal health: brown, yellow, and green. Newborn poop, while typically yellow and mustard like, can occasionally come out in the two other colors, even if what goes in, namely breast milk or formula, stays the same. The color change is more a reflection of how long the milk takes to pass through the intestines and how much bile acid gets mixed in with the developing poop.

Bad colors of poop are: red (blood), white (complete absence of color), and tarry black. Only the first poop that babies pass on the first day of life, called meconium, is always tarry black and is normal. At any other time of life, black tarry stools are abnormal and are a sign of potential internal bleeding and should always be discussed with your child’s health care provider, as should blood in poop (also not normal) and white poop (which could indicate a liver problem).

Normal pooping behavior for a newborn can be grunting, turning red, crying, and generally appearing as if an explosion is about to occur. As long as what comes out after all this effort is a soft poop (and normal poop should always be soft), then this behavior is normal. Other babies poop effortlessly and this, too, is normal.

Besides its color, another topic of intense fascination to many parents is the frequency and consistency of poop. This aspect is often tied in with questions about diarrhea and constipation. Here is the scoop:

It is normal for newborns to poop during or after every feeding, although not all babies poop this often. This means that if your baby feeds 8-12 times a day, then she can have 8-12 poops a day. One reason that newborns are seen every few weeks in the pediatric office is to check that they are gaining weight normally: that calories taken in are enough for growth and are not just being pooped out. While normal poop can be very soft and mushy, diarrhea is watery and prevents normal weight gain.

After the first few weeks of life, a change in pooping frequency can occur. Some formula fed babies will continue their frequent pooping while others decrease to once a day or even once every 2-3 days. Some breastfed babies actually decrease their poop frequency to once a week! It turns out that breast milk can be very efficiently digested with little waste product. Again, as long as these babies are feeding well, not vomiting, acting well, have soft bellies rather than hard, distended bellies, and are growing normally, then you as parents can enjoy the less frequent diaper changes. Urine frequency should remain the same (at least 6 wet diapers every 24 hours, on average) and is a sign that your baby is adequately hydrated. Again, as long as what comes out in the end is soft, then your baby is not “constipated” but rather has “decreased poop frequency.”

True constipation is poop that is hard and comes out as either small hard pellets or a large hard poop mass. These poops are often painful to pass and can even cause small tears in the anus. You should discuss true constipation with your child’s health care provider. A typical remedy, assuming that everything else about your baby is normal, is adding a bit of prune or apple juice, generally ½ to 1 ounce, to the formula bottle once or twice daily. True constipation in general is more common in formula fed babies than breastfed babies.

Adding solid foods generally causes poop to become more firm or formed, but not always. It DOES always cause more odor and can also add color to poop. Dr. Kardos still remembers her surprise over her eldest’s first “sweet potato poop” as she and her husband asked each other, “Will you look at that? Isn’t this exactly how it looked when it went IN?” If constipation, again meaning hard poop that is painful to pass, occurs during solid food introductions, you can usually help by giving more prunes and oatmeal and less rice and bananas to help poop become softer and easier to pass.

Potty training can trigger constipation resulting from poop withholding. This poop withholding can result in backup of poop in the intestines which leads to pain and poor eating. Children withhold poop for one of three main reasons.

They are afraid of the toilet or potty seat.

They had one painful poop and they resolve never to repeat the experience by trying to never poop again.

They are locked into a control issue with their parents. Recall the truism “You can lead a horse to water but you can’t make him drink.” This applies to potty training as well.

Treatment for stool withholding is to QUIT potty training for at least a few weeks and to ADD as much stool softening foods and drinks as possible. Good-for-poop drinks and foods include prune juice, apple juice, pear juice, water, fiber-rich breads and cereals, beans, fresh fruits and vegetables. Sometimes, under the guidance of your child’s health care provider, medical stool softeners are needed until your child overcomes his fear of pooping and resolves his control issue. For more information about potty training we refer you to our post with podcast on this subject.

Our goal with this blog post was to highlight some frequently-asked-about poop topics and to reassure that most things come out okay in the end. And that’s the real scoop.

Julie Kardos, MD and Naline Lai, MD

©2014 Two Peds in a Pod®

modified from original 2009 post


In the next month, we’ll be updating our posts on baby basics. As we said to Robin Young on NPR’s Here and Now,  “a lot of life’s issues all boil down to the essentials of life…eat, sleep, drink, pee, poop and love.”  Over the next month we’ll be giving you ideas and updates on all of those essentials. We start off with “eat” and how to transition your baby to solid foods:

starting baby foods


While starting your child on solid food isn’t always “love at first bite” it also does not have to be complicated or stressful.

Here are some overriding principles to keep in mind when feeding your baby:

1) It’s not just about the food. It’s about teaching your child to eat when hungry and to stop when not hungry.

2) Eating a meal with family is social as well as nutritious. Keep eating pleasant and relaxed. No need to force-feed or trick your child into eating. Feed your baby along with other family members so your baby can learn to eat by watching others eat.

3) Babies start out eating pureed foods on a spoon between 4-6 months and progress to finger foods when physically capable, usually between 7-9 months. Teeth are not required; hand to mouth coordination is required.

Before four to six months of age, a baby slumps when propped in a sitting position and tends to choke on solids. After four months, babies are less likely to reflexively “tongue thrust” food right back out of their mouths.  Putting cereal into a bottle doesn’t count as “eating” and is not necessary.

Timing matters when offering solid food for the first time. Babies learn to expect a breast or a bottle when hungry. So make sure your baby is happy and awake but NOT hungry the first time you feed her solid food because at this point she is learning a skill, not eating for nutrition. You should wait about an hour after a milk feeding when she is playful and ready to try something new. Keep a camera nearby because babies make great faces when eating food for the first time. Many parents like to start new foods in the morning so that they have the entire day to make sure it agrees with their baby. Watch for rash or stomach upset.

What should you feed your baby first? There is no one right answer to this question. The easiest food to offer is one that is already on the breakfast, lunch, or dinner table that is easy to mush up.  In some cultures, a baby’s first food is a smash of lentils and rice. In other cultures it’s small bits of hard-boiled egg or a rice porridge. Just avoid honey before one year of age because honey can cause botulism in infants. The bottom line: it doesn’t matter much what you start with, as long as it’s nutritious. Dr. Kardos is proud to say that she fed her nephew his first solid food this summer: watermelon! (He loved it). Even if you start with a mashed up  banana or a yam, plan to add iron-containing foods sooner rather than later. Pediatricians recommend a diet with iron-containing solid foods because a baby’s iron needs will eventually outstrip what what she stored from her mother before birth as well as what she can get from breast milk or formula. Iron-containing food include iron-fortified baby cereal (such as oatmeal or rice) and  pureed meats (such as chicken, beef or fish). Note, with baby cereals, make them up with formula or breast milk, not water or juice, for more nutritional “oomph.”

Some babies will learn in just one feeding to swallow without gagging and to open their mouths when they see the spoon coming. Other babies need more time. They may tongue-thrust the food back out, cough when trying to swallow, cry, or appear clueless when the spoon comes back to them. To avoid the tongue-thrust reflex or the gag reflex, place the spoon gently to one side of your baby’s tongue during a feed. If you see your baby is distressed, just end the meal. Some babies take several weeks to catch on to the idea of eating solids. Try one new food at a time. Then, if your baby has a reaction to the food, you’ll know what to blame.

Some babies just never seem to like mushed up foods and prefer to suck on foods at first (like Dr. Kardos’s nephew did with his watermelon). One practice called baby-led weaning describes another way of introducing solids.

Stage one and stage two baby foods are similar. No need to test all stage one foods before going onto stage two. The consistency of the food is the same. The stages differ in the size of the containers and stage one foods do not contain meat. Some stage two foods will combine ingredients. Combinations are fine as long as you know your baby already tolerates each individual ingredient (i.e. “peas and carrots” are fine if she’s already had each one alone). Avoid the dessert foods. Your baby does not need fillers such as cornstarch and concentrated sweets.

Not all kids like all foods. Don’t worry if your baby hates carrots or bananas. Many other choices are available. At the same time, don’t forget to offer a previously rejected food multiple times because taste buds change.

Be forewarned: poop changes with solid foods. Usually it gets more firm or has more odor. Food is not always fully digested at this age and thus shows up in the poop. Wait until you see a sweet potato poop!

By six months, babies replace at least one milk feeding with a solid food meal. Some babies are up to three meals a day by 6 months, some are eating one meal per day. Starting at six months, for cup training purposes, you can offer a cup with water at meals. Juice is not recommended. Juice contains a lot of sugar and very little nutrition.

Offer finger foods when your baby can sit alone and manipulate a toy without falling over. When you see your baby delicately picking up a piece of lint off the floor and putting it into his mouth, he’s probably ready.  Usually this occurs between 7-9 months of age. Even with no teeth your baby can gum-smash a variety of finger foods. Examples include “Toasted Oats” (Cheerios), which are low in sugar and dissolve in your mouth eventually without any chewing, ½ cheerio-sized cooked vegetable, soft fruit, ground meat or pieces of baked chicken, beans, tofu, egg yolk, soft cheese, small pieces of pasta. Start by putting a finger food on the tray while you are spoon feeding and see what your child does. They often do better feeding themselves finger foods rather than having someone else “dump the lump” into their mouths.

Children should always eat sitting down and not while crawling or walking in order to AVOID CHOKING. Also, you don’t want to create a constantly munching toddler who will grow into a constantly munching ten year old.

Finger food sample meals: Breakfast: cereal, pieces of fruit. Lunch: pasta or rice, lentils or beans, cooked vegetables in pieces, pieces of cheese. Dinner: soft meat such as chicken or ground beef, cooked veggies and/or fruit, bits of potato, or cereal. need other ideas? Check out this post on finger foods. By nine months, kids can eat most of the adult meal at the table, just avoid choking hazards such as raw vegetables, chewy meats, nuts, and hot dogs. You can use breast feedings or formula bottles as snacks between meals or with some meals. By this age, it is normal for babies to average 16-24 oz of formula daily or 3-4 breast feedings daily.

Avoid fried foods and highly processed foods. Do not buy “toddler meals” which are high in salt and “fillers.” Avoid baby junk food- if the first three ingredients are “flour, water, sugar/corn syrup”, don’t buy it. We are amazed at the baby-junk food industry that insinuate that “fruit chews,” “yogurt bites” and “cookies” have any place in anyone’s diet. Instead, feed your child eat REAL fruit, ACTUAL yogurt, and healthy carbs such as pasta, cous-cous, or rice.

Organic and conventional foods have the same nutritional content. They differ in price, and they differ in pesticide exposure, but no study to date has shown any health differences in children who consume organic vs conventional foods. For more information, see this American Academy article and this study as well as our own prior post about organic vs conventional foods.

A word about food allergies: Even the allergists lack a definitive answer of what makes a child allergic to a food, and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology now recommends offering foods, including the more “allergic” foods, early to avoid later food allergy. This is a change from recommendations issued about 15 years ago. For safety concerns, if a household member has a life threatening allergy to a food, continue to avoid bringing that food into the house to ensure the safety of the allergic person. However, if no one at home has a peanut allergy, then a thin spread of peanut butter on a bit of toast or cracker is safe for your finger-feeding baby. Focus more on avoiding choking hazards than on avoiding theoretically allergenic foods.

And a word about fish:  For years, experts fretted about pregnant women and children exposing themselves to high mercury levels by eating contaminated fish. However, the  realization that fish is packed with nutrition, and the data that show only a few types of fish actually contain significant mercury levels, now leads the FDA to encourage fish intake in young children and pregnant women. Please check this FDA advice for specific information about which fish to offer your child and the nutritional benefits of different kinds of fish.

Bon appetite,

Julie Kardos, MD and Naline Lai, MD
©Two Peds in a Pod®

Updated from our original 2009 post


potty training dogs

Children master potty training typically between the ages of two and four years. Be patient, not everyone is “typical.” More important than your child’s age is whether she shows she is developmentally ready to train. These signs include:
– is generally agreeable/ can follow directions
– gets a funny expression on her face before passing urine or poop, or runs and hides, then produces a wet or soiled diaper
-asks to be changed/ pulls on her diaper when it becomes wet or soiled

– remains dry during the day time for at least two hours
-NOT because grandparents are pressuring you to start training their grandchild
– NOT if the child is constipated—the last thing you want to do is to teach withholding to a kid who already withholds
-NOT if a newborn sibling has just joined the family. A new baby in the house is often a time of REGRESSION, not progression. However, if your toddler begs to use the potty at this time, then by all means, allow her to try.

Hit play to listen to our potty training podcast:

Naline Lai, MD and Julie Kardos, MD

©2014 Two Peds in a Pod®



To all of the dads who read our blog: we invite you to help us with our Father’s Day post. Are there things you find yourself doing now that you are a dad that you never imagined you would be doing before you had a child? Try to finish this thought: “Before I became a dad, I never thought I’d…”

Please comment to this post or send us an email at:

We will post your responses on Father’s Day.

Julie Kardos, MD and Naline Lai, MD
©2014 Two Peds in a Pod®


baby child sleepWhen I was a child, a special treat was to have a sleepover at my grandparents’ house. My grandfather was an early riser and to this day I can still hear him roaring “When Pop-Pop’s up, EVERYBODY’S UP!” as I awoke to the aroma of my grandmother’s hot breakfast.


As all parents know, when BABY’s up, EVERYBODY’s up. What‘s the secret to good sleep? It’s all in the bedtime routine.


Parents should establish a good bedtime routine when their children are babies and should continue to enforce the routine until their children grow up and leave home. Just as prevention of heart disease begins with establishing healthy eating and exercise habits when your children are young, prevention of adult insomnia starts with establishing a healthy bedtime routine.


Here are ways to help your kids sleep from infancy through young adulthood: Start with our most commented upon podcast: how to help your baby to sleep through the night. Parents of preschool-aged kids will appreciate”sleep invaders”: nightmares, night terrors, and other monsters under the bed .  Even if you don’t have a teen, plug in our podcast on the Tired Teen .


Now that winter break is a memory, it’s time to buckle down and rid your child of the jet lag that persists from the “vacation sleep schedule.” For more ways to do this, refer to Wakeup sleepyhead its time for school.


May you have a good night this and every night!


Julie Kardos, MD and Naline Lai, MD
©2014 Two Peds in a Pod®


We know that winter break often finds kids spending more time in front of screens: watching TV, playing video games, or surfing the internet. Today we repost our suggestions to help limit screen time in your home.
Drs. Kardos and Lai

“Mom, can we do screen?”

My kids ask me this question when they are bored. Never mind the basement full of toys and games, the outdoor sports equipment, or the numerous books on our shelves. They’d watch any screen whether television, hand-held video game, or computer for hours if I let them. But I notice that on days I give in, my children bicker more and engage in less creative play than on days that I don’t allow some screen time.

Babies who watch television develop language slower than their screen-free counterparts (despite what the makers of “educational videos” claim) and children who log in more screen time are prone to obesity, insomnia, and behavior difficulties. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no more than two hours of television watching a day for kids over the age of two years, and NO television for those younger than two.

Over the years, parents have given me tips on how they limit screen time in their homes. Here are some ideas for cutting back:

  • Have children who play a musical instrument earn screen time by practicing music. Have children who play a sport earn screen time by practicing their sport.
  • Turn off the screen during the week. Limit screen to weekends or one day per week.
  • Set a predetermined time limit on screen time, such as 30 minutes or one hour per day. If your child chooses, she can skip a day to accumulate and “save” for a longer movie or longer video game.
  • Take the TV, personal computer, and video games out of your children’s bedrooms. Be a good role model by taking them out of your own bedroom as well.
  • Turn off the TV during meals.
  • Turn off the TV as background noise. Turn on music instead.
  • Have books available to read in relaxing places in the house (near couches, beds, etc.). When kids flop on the couch they will pick up a book to relax instead of reaching for the remote control.
  • Give kids a weekly “TV/screen allowance” with parameters such as no screen before homework is done, no screen right before bed, etc. Let the kids decide how to “spend” their allowance.

Not that I am averse to “family movie night,” and I understand the value of plunking an ill child in front of a video in order to take his mind off his ailment. In fact, Dr. Lai lives in a house with three iPod Touches, two iPhones, a Nintendo DS and three computers. But I do find it frightening to watch my otherwise very animated children lose all facial expression as they tune in to a television show.

For more information about how screen time affects children, see the American Academy of Pediatrics web site ( and put in “television” in the search box.

Let us know how you dissuade your children from the allure of the screen.

Julie Kardos, MD and Naline Lai, MD
© 2010 Two Peds in a Pod®



how to cut down on sugarWe welcome back health coach Mary McDonald (the mom who overhauled her kids’ sports snack stand), to provide advice on how to survive what Dr. Shifrin referred to last week as Candy Season.
—Drs. Lai and Kardos

If your home is like mine, you have an extraordinary amount of Halloween candy lurking in the most unusual locations:  inside an old roasting pan, under a pile of shoes in your daughter’s closet, or tucked in an end table drawer in your living room.  It’s an incredibly hard time of the year to eat healthy and to help your children make good food choices when sweets are so abundant from October to January.  I
t is disturbing to think about the bad eating habits that start at the holidays and can lead to an addiction to sugar throughout the rest of the year.  In order to combat the inevitable onslaught of sugary treats, here are a few strategies to consider:

  1. Invite the “Switch Fairy” or “Switch Witch” to your home. If you’re tired of telling your children, “Step away from the candy!” then make sure it isn’t easy to access. Your kids will love you if you tell them the Switch Fairy will visit your home tonight to replace the candy with a toy, clothing, or their favorite item.  Keeping sweets out of sight will make it easier to replace the candy with a healthier option, such as fruit salad or a yogurt parfait. 
  2. So, what can the Switch Fairy do with the extra sweets? Contact your local dentist or do an online search for candy donation sites.  Many local organizations will buy back Halloween candy. This becomes a perfect way to subsidize the present that the Switch Fairy purchases. 
  3. Drink Water.  Staying hydrated is a great way to curb cravings.  When you crave sweets, there’s a good chance that you’re actually dehydrated and your brain is craving water.  When your kids are tired, instead of  reaching for a-little-something-sweet as a pick-me-up, try giving them a drink of water. You may be surprised that their cravings are reduced. Are you looking to make water more enticing?  Try purchasing a swirly straw and designate the straw for water only.
  4. Don’t drink soda.  Soda is nothing but liquid sugar and void of any nutrition.  Each 12-oz. can of Coke contains approximately 10 teaspoons of sugar.  An easy way to reduce your sweets during the holiday season is to select water as your drink of choice.  If your child must have a soda, suggest splitting the can with your child or with a friend.  Pour a few ounces into each cup and throw away the rest.  It’s okay. 
  5. Increase your carbs!  Yes, you heard me correctly.  For years, carbs were given a bad rap.  Low carb diets promoted the idea that all carbs are created the same.  In fact, they are not.  Natural carbohydrates (the ones found in fruits and vegetables such as sweet potatoes, carrots, bananas, and oranges) can help reduce your cravings for sweets.  Try reaching for one of these options before you go for a cookie.  For an added bonus, wash this snack down with a big glass of water.  You will be really surprised at how quickly you cure your sugar craving. Make fruit or veggies more exciting by using toothpicks to pick up the food.  See how many green peas you can fit on a toothpick.  Make it fun – who doesn’t like a pea eating competition?
  6. Chew Gum.  According to research from the University of Rhode Island, people who chewed gum consumed 68 fewer calories at lunch and did not compensate by eating more later in the day. Chewing gum also helped the study participants satisfy their cravings and resist fattening treats. And there’s more: Gum chewers actually burned about 5% more calories than non-gum chewers.
  7. Just say no.  Social pressure to join in and eat what others are eating can be overwhelming.  Most people are very receptive when you say, “No thanks, I’m full.”  Tell your children that it’s okay to “Just Say No”, whether you’re talking about food or other temptations.
  8. Cook from scratch.  Cooking, especially with your children, is a wonderful way to control the ingredients that are in the food that you eat.  There are many wonderful natural substitutions to cane sugar (stevia, agave syrup, maple syrup, dates, raisins, etc.) that provide an equal amount of sweetness to your food.  Become a scientist and experiment with alternative sweeteners.  Click here for recipe ideas. 
  9. Understand your labels.  Did you know that every 4 grams of sugar = 1 teaspoon of sugar?  Understanding the basics of a nutrition label is critical to understanding what you are eating. 

So, as you and your family weave your way through the sweetest months of the year, think of inviting the Switch Fairy to your house for a home cooked meal full of natural carbs and a big cup of water.

Mary McDonald
©2013 Two Peds in a Pod®

Mary McDonald holds a Masters of Education from Arcadia University and completed her health coach certification from Institute of Integrative Nutrition.  She is a high school teacher, a mom of four daughters, and an advocate for healthy food choices.  For more information on her health coaching services, please contact her at or visit her website at




Wake up!


Remember that sleeping, along with eating, peeing and pooping, is an essential of life that helps your child (and you) function well. Inadequate sleep is associated with obesity, learning difficulties, behavior problems, and emotional lability (gotta love the whining of an overtired kid.)

In honor of the National Sleep Foundation’s National Sleep Awareness Week, which ends on March 11when Americans “spring ahead” the clocks and we ironically lose one hour of sleep, please refer to our earlier podcasts and blog posts on sleep. We invite you to learn about how to teach healthy sleep habits to your kids and yourselves (the parents). 

The podcasts:
Sleep Patterns of the Newborn
Helping your baby to sleep through the night
-“There’s a monster under my bed”: all about nightmares, night terrors, night wandering, and bedwetting
The tired teen

The blog posts:
-Sleep Safety: How to decrease your baby’s risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

-Parents of newborns: get your Zzzzzs back
I Need a Nap!
Wake up, sleepy-head, it’s time for school!

When your child’s bedtime seems too late, or, will I ever get a late night alone with my spouse again?

Julie Kardos, MD and Naline Lai, MD
©2012 Two Peds in a Pod®


Vaccine protection against flu (influenza) is coming soon. Thankfully, last year’s confusion caused by two separate vaccines is eliminated. This year’s flu vaccine, both the injectable and the nasal forms, protects against both novel H1N1 and the season strains of flu. Not only from a confusion standpoint, but also from a health benefit standpoint, this is good news. Unlike seasonal flu, which causes severe disease in both the elderly and youngsters, 90 percent of deaths from H1N1 were in people younger than age 65 years.

The current recommendation of the US Center for Disease Control  ( ) is to immunize ALL children against flu starting at six months of age (if local supplies are limited, the highest risk groups will be targeted).  All household members and caregivers of babies too young to receive the immunization should also be vaccinated, as well as all caregivers of children of any age.

As always, children nine years old and older need only ONE dose of flu vaccine this year. Children below nine (eight years old and younger) will receive one dose of flu vaccine this year as long as they received at least two doses of seasonal flu and one dose of H1N1 vaccine in the past.

The children who need two doses of flu vaccine this year are the ones younger than nine years old who received zero or one seasonalflu vaccine in the past or who have never received H1N1 vaccine.

With school start comes illness season, so remember to schedule your children for their flu vaccines early this fall. Speak with your child’s health care provider about which form of flu vaccine is appropriate for him or her. Then schedule your own flu vaccine.

Remember the artwork from last year? The picture is a rendition of H1N1 from the perspective of a kindergartener. Note the large boogie to nose ratio. The red represents “boss germs” and the purple shows the “just plain mean ones.”

Ah-CHOO! Banish FLU!

Julie Kardos, MD and Naline Lai, MD
© 2010 Two Peds in a Pod℠

Sept 16, 2010  a quick add- if your child actually had H1N1 last year (confirmed by a test) you can consider it the same as getting the H1N1 vaccine in the 2009 season (just building up immunity the hard way)


For all the kids who received separate seasonal and 2009 H1N1 (Swine flu) vaccines last year, there is good news from Kimberly Parnell, PhD, our favorite flu vaccine vigilant-scientist-mom (see the last H1N1 vaccine blog post). The World Health Organization, who meets on a yearly basis in February to decide on the strains for the upcoming fall’s “flu shot” has decided to roll the new/novel H1N1 into this year’s Northern Hemisphere vaccine. 

Winter flu season … it’s only nine months away !

For more detailed information: 

Naline Lai, MD

© 2010 Two Peds in a Pod